The Pope, the King, his Wife and her Luther

Belief in Brief

Roman Catohlic Anglican Puritan
There are 7 sacraments:
Extreme Unction
There are 2 sacraments:
There are 2 sacraments:
The Lord's Supper
The bread and wine are mystically transformed into the physical body of Christ.
Christ is spiritually present in the bread and wine through the Holy Spirit.
or to some purely
symbolical memorial
of the Last Supper.
Liturgy and Bible in Latin
Liturgy and Bible in English
Liturgy in English
Scriptures for al
Good Works Valuable
Good Works Useless
Good Works Useless
Existance of Free Will;
Man's ability to change his own destiny without the influence of God.
NO Free Will; God determines our actions and we are in His hands,therefore Predestination.
NO Free Will; very strong Predestination and Election of chosen.
Chaste Priests
Married Priests
Married Ministers
No Wine for Laity
Host in both kinds
Host in both kinds
Adoration of images is not Idolatry
Art is acceptable, must avoid idolatry
Iconoclasm of images
Traditions sacred and central to practice.
Room for various traditions; those questioning authority by denouncing tradition should be publicly told-off.
Do away with traditions which were created by man, having no substance in Holy Scripture. All is Superfluous.
Authority of the Pope.
No temporal authority for spiritual matters
The Bishop of Rome hath nojurisdiction in this realm of England; Monarch is head of the Church.
We hate the Pope and don't much like bishops either; Monarch technically head, but no temporal head at all is even better.
Purification of women after childbirth.
Sung masses; choral tradition of monasteries.
Churching of women a mere thanksgiving, but compulsory Services commonly sung and Hymns popular.
Thanksgiving appropriate but not essential.
NO music; rip out the organs.
Purgatory exists; pray for souls of the dead. 
NO purgatory, but pray for dead anyway.
No purgatory; don't pray for souls of dead.


(the events that took place in the course of a single lifetime, 1517-87; 'three score years and ten')

Date Years Before 1588
1517 71
Luther nails 95 Theses to door of Wittenburg Cathedral.
1524 64
Tyndale's New Testament circulating illegally in England.
Like other 'Lutheran' books, it was publicly burned, as were the residual Lollards (mostly tradesmen-classes) who were the spiritual descendants of Wycliffe. Their beliefs were remarkably close to those of Calvin, later.
1530 58
Death of Cardinal Wolsey
1531 57
Henry VIII first declared Supreme Head of Church in England.
1534 54
Act in Absolute Restraint of Annates.
Act to stop payment of Peter's Pence.
Sale of Papal Dispensations prohibited in England.
1535 53 (eg.VE. day to 1998)
Pope created Fisher a cardinal in May, but Henry VIII executed him in June. Sir Thomas More was executed in July.
1536 52
Cardinal Pole published Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione (pro Pope).
Starkey published Exhortation to Unity and Obedience (King's printer).
Dissolution Act passed.
Pilgrimage of Grace.
1547 41
Henry VIII died asking for masses to be sung for his soul in Purgatory, which he had already abolished. The radical party (Catherine Parr and the Seymour brothers) was in power at the end of the reign and on the ascension of Edward VI as King.
1549 39
1st conservative Book of Common Prayer by Thomas Cranmer.
1552 36
More radical edition of the Book of Common Prayer published, which continued to be used, although considered too 'Genevan' for many English bishops throughout the century.
1553 35  (eg. Kennedy's death)
Edward died, he cut Mary out of the succession, in his will, because keeping England Protestant was more imortant to him than recognizing his father's will; a pretty amazing move! He named Jane Grey, relative by marriage to Protector Northumberland (what a surprise), as his successor.
Mary raised an army at Framlingham and Elizabeth joined her.
Putting down Suffolk's rebellion was a walk-over.
1554 34
Wyatt's rebellion was anti-Spanish more than anti-Catholic.
Statute of Repeal.
Mary I married Phillip of Spain.
Most protestant martyrs were working-class.
1555 33
Executions of bishops Latimer and Ridley.
1558 30 (eg. I was born)
Elizabeth ascended the throne.
1559 29
Act of Supremacy.
Act of Uniformity (one shilling fine for every absence from Anglican services).
1560-63 27 ish
Council of Trent sat in Italy to re-clarify Catholic Doctrine; came to conclusion that everything they had believed before had been right!
1569 19
1st Ridolfi plot.
The Rising of the Northern Earls; Latin Mass sung in Durham Cathedral.
William Allen's college at Douai sent over about 300 catholic priests.
1570 18
Papal Bull Regnans in Excelsis declared Elizabeth I excommunicated and effectively told all English catholics to choose between Faith and Patriotism.
1571 17
2nd Ridolfi plot.
1572 16
Puritan Admonition to Parliament published, pressing for faster progress towards Presbyterianism and complaining of stagnancy in the Anglican church.
1581 7
Act of English Catholics; anybody found to be dis-loyal to be treated to the death of a traitor. Non-attendance of Anglican services fine increased to a crippling £20.
Jesuit Edmund Campion executed, saying the English catholics were "as true subjects as ever the Queen had".
1583 5
Death (natural!) of Archbishop Grindal, the last Marian leftover.
1586 2
Babington plot.
1587 1
Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
1588 0
By this year, there is a recognizable 'Anglican Party' in Parliament, so what began as compromise has become a true church. In 1603, James VI & I, brought up a presbyterian, chooses the Anglican church in preference because of its temporal authority.

The Nicean Creed

I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible:

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten not made, Being of one substance with the Father by whom all things were made: Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again in glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord and giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the prophets. And I believe in one Catholick and Apostolick Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the Resurrection of the dead, And the life of the world to come.


Passages of Scripture which influenced the Laws or Culture of the Sixteenth-Century

The Ten Commandments Exodus 20

The Idolators in the Wilderness Slain Exodus 32

Of Unlawful Marriages Leviticus 18

Diverse Laws about Nakedness Leviticus 20

Of the Proper Punishment for a Stubborn Son Deuteronomy 21:18

The Exemplary story of Ruth and Naomi Ruth

Job Curses the Day he was Born (29\02); midst of life we are in death Job 1 -6

Rebuke me not in Thy Anger Psalm 6

The Heavens Declare the Glory of God Psalm 19

Blessed is Everyone that Feareth the Lord (wife a fruitful vine) Psalm 128

Of the Value of Instruction (ie. Scripture) Proverbs 4

Useful Proverbs of all kinds to drop into Suitable Situations Proverbs generally; 22 &26

The Virtuous Woman whose Price is Above Rubies Proverbs 31:10 -end

Of the Coming of Christ's Kingdom Isaiah 2

Of the Folly of Idol-makers Isaiah 44 - 46

The Writing on the Wall at the Unholy Feast Daniel 5

The Story of Jonah Jonah

The Sermon on the Mount Matthew 5 - 8

The Marriage of the King's Son (many called; few chosen) Matthew 22

The Wise and Foolish Virgins, Talents & Last Judgement (sheep & goats) Matthew 25

The Last Supper (the version the prayer-book is based on) Matthew 26

Christ's Answer Concerning Divorce Mark 10

Of Paying Tributes (render to Caesar) Mark 12:14 - 18

The Parables of the Lost Sheep and the Prodigal Son Luke 15.

The Unjust Steward (can't serve two masters) Luke 16

I am the Bread of Life John 6:22 -66

Justification by Faith and Rising to Grace Romans 5

The Wages of Sin is Death Romans 6

Duties of the Married State 1 Corinthians 7

Why Communion is Sacrifice not Idolatry; flee from idolatry 1 Corinthians 10

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not etc 1 Corinthians 13

Women to keep quiet in church; to learn anything, ask their husbands 1 Corinthians 14:34 &35

We are troubled on every side 2 Corinthians 4:8 -11

Every man shall bear his own burden Galations 6:5

Wives, submit to your husbands; husbands, love your wives (wedding rite) Ephesians 5:22 -29

Children and servants to be obedient; parents and masters not wrathful. Ephesians 6:1 - 10

The Dangers of Unbelief Hebrews 3 & 4

Of Faith and Works, how they are connected James 2:14 - end

The Armegeddon and Visions of Christ's Bride and other Weird Stuff Revelation

The Tudor Position on Jews (from writings of Robert Grosseteste, 13th century Bishop of Lincoln)

"As murderers of the Lord, as still blaspheming Christ and mocking His Passion, they were to be in captivity to the Princes of the earth. As they have the brand of Cain and are condemned to wander over the face of the earth, so they were to have the privilege of Cain, that no man was to kill them."

Notes to the talk by Shona Rutherford-Edge at a Tudor Group Workshop. Copyright © 1998 The Tudor Group